DETECTION METHODS FOR WESTERN BLOT

Western Blot is a technique commonly used in scientific research laboratories. By means of this technique, the different proteins present in a sample are separated according to their molecular weight by gel electrophoresis, and are subsequently transferred to a membrane to proceed with their identification using specific antibodies.

Although the foundation of the technique remains, over the years new detection methods have been developed in order to obtain more accurate results and also allow a quantitative analysis of proteins.

In this post we bring you a summary of the main detection methods for Western Blot with the advantages and disadvantages of each of them.

DETECTION METHODS FOR WESTERN BLOT

1.- RADIOACTIVE DETECTION METHODS
This type of detection was one of the first methods used to reveal the results of the Western Blot, by labeling the antibodies with radioactive conjugates.

The main advantage of this method lies in its sensitivity, but it has the great drawback that when using radioactive materials there is a risk to the researcher’s health and safety. Furthermore, it is a high-cost technique and its execution is time consuming.

Radioactive detection is not currently among the Western Blot detection methods of choice. In fact, its use is discouraged.

2.- ENZYMATIC DETECTION METHODS
These methods are based on the use of secondary antibodies conjugated to an enzyme that catalyzes a reaction with a specific substrate.

Within this category, detection can be carried out by means of two types of enzymatic reactions:

2.1 COLORIMETRIC DETECTION
In this case, the enzyme bound to the secondary antibody triggers a reaction with the substrate giving rise to a colored precipitate that can be visually identified.

The advantages of this method lie in its speed, simplicity and low economic cost, in addition to not requiring any special equipment. Its drawback is its low sensitivity (in the order of picograms).

This method is usually used when it is necessary to quickly and easily analyze the presence or absence of a certain protein.

2.2 DETECTION BY CHEMIOLUMINISCENCE
In chemiluminescence assays, the enzyme bound to the secondary antibody triggers a reaction with a luminescent substrate generating light.

In this case, the great advantage is the high sensitivity provided by this method (in the order of femtograms), allowing proteins with very low levels of expression to be identified. As a drawback, note that it requires the use of specialized equipment to read the results.

3.- FLUORESCENT DETECTION METHODS
This type of detection is based on the use of secondary antibodies conjugated to fluorophores that produce signal by themselves, without the need to add any additional substrate.

Among the advantages, it should be noted that the signal is more stable than that produced by enzymatic detection methods and, above all, that the possibility of using fluorophorized antibodies with different emission wavelengths on the same Western Blot membrane allows multiplexing the experiments. It should also be noted that this method also allows quantifying the protein present in the sample.

As disadvantages, a lower sensitivity than chemiluminescence detection, and the need to use specialized equipment.

Fluorescence is among the most widely used Western Blot detection methods today.

ANTIBODIES FOR IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE

The immunofluorescence (IF) technique, based on the detection of a specific antigen of interest by using fluorescently labeled antibodies, is a technique widely used in research laboratories due to its simplicity and reliability.

The results can be visualized by fluorescence microscopy using short wavelengths and, in addition to detecting the presence or absence of a certain protein in the sample, it is possible to determine its distribution in the sample or confirm the presence of post-translational modifications, among others.

In this post we bring you some keys related to antibodies for immunofluorescence that can help you optimize the results of your tests.

3 KEYS WHEN USING ANTIBODIES FOR IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE

1.- THE IMPORTANCE OF THE SPECIFICITY OF ANTIBODIES FOR IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE
As in any other immunoassay, the specificity of the primary antibody against our target antigen is a determining factor in the reliability and success of the results. The more specific the antibody, the better the signal obtained and the less background noise generated.

Let us also remember that an antibody that has a high specificity against an antigen in a certain technique does not have to do so in another, even if it is the same antigen. Hence the importance of validating each antibody for each technique in which it will be used. In the case at hand, it is essential to previously validate the immunofluorescence antibodies to be used in the assay.

How can we validate the antibodies for immunofluorescence? For there are various methods such as positive and negative expression experiments using, for example, knock-out cell lines, by experimental manipulation of the location of the target protein, protocol optimizations, etc. Or, resorting to commercial antibodies already validated for use in this technique.

2.- CONTROLS FOR IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE
The inclusion of controls, as in any other experiment, will increase confidence in the results obtained in terms of specificity and sensitivity.

To avoid errors derived from autofluorescence phenomena or from nonspecific binding of antibodies, the use of negative controls in immunofluorescence assays is very important.

Additionally, additional controls such as omission of the primary antibody, the use of isotype controls and of negative and positive cell lines for the antigen of interest may be included.

3.- DILUTION OF THE ANTIBODIES FOR IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE
To optimize the results of the tests, another key point is the titration of the antibodies to determine the ideal dilution to use in each case. This will also vary depending on whether we are dealing with a purified antibody or an antiserum.

In this sense, it is important to achieve a good signal / background noise ratio, that is, an optimal relationship between the intensity of the fluorescent signal from the antigen of interest and the background signal due to nonspecific junctions. If we apply the primary antibody at a very low concentration, it will be very difficult to distinguish the positive signal. Conversely, an overly concentrated antibody will excessively increase background noise.

The typical concentration / dilution ranges for immunofluorescence experiments are usually between 1-10ug / mL in the case of using purified antibodies, and between 1: 100 – 1: 1000 for the antisera.

In this post you can remember some other recommended dilutions for other techniques and immunoassays.

3D chemical imaging of the brain using quantitative IR spectro-microscopy.

3D chemical imaging of the brain using quantitative IR spectro-microscopy.

Three-dimensional (3D) histology is the subsequent frontier for contemporary anatomopathology. Characterizing irregular parameters in a tissue is important to grasp the rationale of pathology growth. However, there is no such thing as a analytical approach, in vivo or histological, that is ready to uncover such irregular options and supply a 3D distribution at microscopic decision.

Here, we introduce a singular high-throughput infrared (IR) microscopy methodology that mixes automated picture correction and subsequent spectral information evaluation for 3D-IR picture reconstruction.

We carried out spectral evaluation of a whole organ for a small animal mannequin, a mouse brain with an implanted glioma tumor. The 3D-IR picture is reconstructed from 370 consecutive tissue sections and corrected using the X-ray tomogram of the organ for an correct quantitative evaluation of the chemical content material.

 3D chemical imaging of the brain using quantitative IR spectro-microscopy.
3D chemical imaging of the brain using quantitative IR spectro-microscopy.

A 3D matrix of 89 × 106 IR spectra is generated, permitting us to separate the tumor mass from wholesome brain tissues based mostly on varied anatomical, chemical, and metabolic parameters. We show that quantitative metabolic parameters might be extracted from the IR spectra for the characterization of the brain vs. tumor metabolism (assessing the Warburg impact in tumors). Our methodology might be additional exploited by looking for the complete spectral profile, discriminating tumor vs. wholesome tissue in a non-supervised method, which we name ‘spectromics’.

Potentiating tangle formation reduces acute toxicity of soluble tau species in the rat

Tauopathies are neurodegenerative illnesses characterised by the aggregation of tau protein. These pathologies exhibit all kinds of scientific and anatomo-pathological displays, which can end result from completely different pathological mechanisms.

Although tau inclusions are a standard characteristic in all these illnesses, current proof as a substitute implicates small oligomeric aggregates as drivers of tau-induced toxicity. Hence in vivo mannequin programs displaying both soluble or fibrillary varieties of wild-type or mutant tau are wanted to higher determine their respective pathological pathways. Here we used adeno-associated viruses to mediate gene switch of human tau to the rat brain to develop fashions of pure tauopathies.

Two completely different constructs had been used, every giving rise to a particular phenotype creating in lower than three months. First, hTAUWT overexpression led to a powerful hyperphosphorylation of the protein, which was related to neurotoxicity in the absence of any vital aggregation. In sharp distinction, its co-expression with the pro-aggregation peptide TauRD-ΔK280 in the hTAUProAggr group strongly promoted its aggregation into Gallyas-positive neurofibrillary tangles, whereas preserving neuronal survival.

Our outcomes help the speculation that soluble tau species are key gamers of tau-induced neurodegeneration.

Nanopathology and its purposes inside the forensic self-discipline

The affect of nanopathology in medication essentially includes additionally the anatomo-pathological diagnostics, as a result of of the present giant unfold of nanoparticles in the setting and the huge spectrum of correlated human illnesses.

The fundamental entrance gates of nanoparticles into the physique are respiratory inhalation, gastro-intestinal absorption and injection of polluted medicine. In all these circumstances, their penetration in the lymphatic or blood streams are potential, with subsequent systemic translocation. Different illnesses might be generated by nanoparticles publicity, from a direct contact irritation to the onset of granulomatous illnesses. Interestingly, they will additionally act as endocrine disruptors on the autocrine and paracrine programs.

At mobile stage, nanoparticles can injury the DNA content material resulting in a subsequent tumorigenesis. In the forensic setting, they are often searched in case of identified publicity to inorganic particulate matter or in case of illnesses of unknown origin, from granulomatous reactions to international inclusions in neoplastic tissues.

The mixed physical-histopathological research enable to narrate potential environmental/industrial air pollution with the pathology and provide a novel instrument for forensic investigations, however, general, they symbolize new technical evidences for attorneys to current in a court docket.

Pathologies of peritoneo-vaginal canal in pediatric surgery at the teaching hospital Gabriel Touré

Pathologies of peritoneo-vaginal canal in pediatric surgery at the teaching hospital Gabriel Touré

The closure anomalies of the peritoneal-vaginal canal embrace a number of scientific entities, that are at the origin of varied symptomatology.

OBJECTIVE

To examine the anatomo-clinical and therapeutic points of pathologies of the peritoneal-vaginal canal.

Pathologies of peritoneo-vaginal canal in pediatric surgery at the teaching hospital Gabriel Touré
Pathologies of peritoneo-vaginal canal in pediatric surgery at the teaching hospital Gabriel Touré

METHODS

This was a potential examine from January 1st to December 31st, 2015 carried out in the pediatric surgery division of University Hospital Gabriel Touré. It coated all kids aged 0-15 years previous with a pathology of the peritoneal-vaginal canal working in the division throughout the examine interval. This examine didn’t embrace circumstances that weren’t operated on or not seen throughout the examine interval.

RESULTS

During the examine interval, 2,699 kids had been handled in pediatric surgery, of which 150 circumstances of pathology of the peritoneal-vaginal canal had a hospital frequency of 5.5%. The common age was 3.25 ± 9.63 years. The intercourse ratio was 14. The cause for session was intermittent or everlasting inguinal or inguino-scrotal swelling in all kids.

The pathology was found by the dad and mom throughout the pushing efforts in 46.7%. Inguino-scrotal swelling was discovered on bodily examination in 40% of circumstances. The proper facet was reached in 60% of the circumstances. Hernia accounted for 80.6% of these pathologies. We recorded 31 circumstances of strangulation and 11 circumstances of craze. Immediate operative follow-up was easy in 92% of sufferers. This charge was 96% after 6 months.

CONCLUSIONS

Pathologies of the peritoneal-vaginal canal are quite common in pediatric surgical apply. The first place of these pathologies is occupied by hernia. They preferentially have an effect on male infants.

Atrophy, metabolism and cognition in the posterior cortical atrophy spectrum primarily based on Alzheimer’s illness cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers

BACKGROUND

In vivo scientific, anatomical and metabolic variations between posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) sufferers presenting with totally different Alzheimer’s illness (AD) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers profiles are nonetheless unknown.METHODSTwenty-seven PCA sufferers underwent CSF examination and had been categorized as 1) PCA with a typical CSF AD profile (PCA-tAD;

irregular amyloid and T-tau/P-tau biomarkers, n = 13); 2) PCA with an atypical AD CSF profile (PCA-aAD; irregular amyloid biomarker solely, n = 9); and three) PCA not related to AD (PCA-nonAD; regular biomarkers, n = 5). All sufferers underwent scientific and cognitive evaluation, structural MRI, and a subset of them underwent mind 18F-FDG PET.

RESULTS

All sufferers’ teams confirmed a typical sample of posterior GM atrophy and hypometabolism typical of PCA, in addition to equal demographics and scientific/cognitive profiles. PCA-tAD sufferers confirmed a group-specific sample of hypometabolism in the left fusiform gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus. PCA-aAD didn’t current a group-specific atrophy sample. Finally, group-specific grey matter atrophy in the proper dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left caudate nucleus and proper medial temporal areas and hypometabolism in the proper supplementary motor space and paracentral lobule had been noticed in PCA-nonAD sufferers.

CONCLUSION

SOur findings recommend that each PCA-tAD and PCA-aAD sufferers are on the AD continuum, in settlement with the not too long ago advised A/T/N mannequin. Furthermore, in PCA, the underlying pathology has an impression at least on the anatomo-functional presentation. Brain harm noticed in PCA-tAD and PCA-aAD was largely in keeping with the well-described presentation of the illness, though it was extra widespread in PCA-tAD group, particularly in the left temporal lobe.

Additional fronto-temporal (particularly dorsolateral prefrontal) harm appears to be a clue to underlying non-AD pathology in PCA, which warrants the want for longitudinal follow-ups to analyze frontal signs in these sufferers.

Charcot's paradox.

Charcot’s paradox.

Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893), thought of the daddy of recent neurology, had a specific curiosity in pathology and realized to worth anatomical findings. Among his essential contributions is the usage of the anatomo-clinical technique in neurology. Although described as chilly and impatient in his interpersonal relations, Charcot had a fantastic affection for animals.

He had two canines in his house, which he known as Carlo and Sigurd, and somewhat monkey, Rosalie. Despite his fascination with neuropathology and anatomo-clinical correlations, Charcot disapproved of research utilizing animal species aside from people, a seemingly paradoxical angle.

 Charcot's paradox.
Charcot’s paradox.

As a consequence, Charcot’s human research resulted in vital advances in neurology as, previous to his analysis, anatomical observations of animals had been extrapolated to people, resulting in conceptual errors.

Morphology of the lateral fossa of the mind (sylvian valley): anatomo-radiological facets and surgical software

The information acquired on the lateral fossa of the mind (LFB) is heterogeneous and incomplete. Our purpose was to supply a morphological description of the LFB and analyze the impression of those descriptions on the surgical strategy of the area.The morphology of LFB was studied on 40 cerebral hemispheres of 20 right-handed topics aged 18-55 years with an MRI of 1.5 T.

The anatomo-radiological identification of the 2 part ranges preceded the outline of the shapes of the LFB. From these landmarks, the kinds introduced by the LFB had been recognized and described on every of the transverse, sagittal and frontal planes.

The comparability of the proportion of shapes made it potential to establish the everyday shapes at every part stage and on every part aircraft.The common age of the topics was 33 years with extremes of 19 and 54 years together with 7 ladies and 13 right-handed males. According to the aircraft and the extent of part, 6 typical morphologies of the LFB have been described, 2 of which had been an identical.

Possible Post-Traumatic Focal Dystonia Associated with Tau Pathology Localized to Putamen-Globus Pallidus

The kinds didn’t differ in keeping with the cerebral hemisphere or the intercourse of the topic. The set of typical morphologies made it potential to find out a reference topic known as NSK which introduced the best variety of typical morphological traits.Knowledge of LFB anatomical imaging is of paramount significance within the pre-surgical analysis of pathologies on this area.

The reference topic will probably be used for our future biometric and three-dimensional guide reconstruction work on this area.

Pilot Study of Voxel-Based Morphometric MRI Post-processing in Patients With Non-lesional Operculoinsular Epilepsy

Pilot Study of Voxel-Based Morphometric MRI Post-processing in Patients With Non-lesional Operculoinsular Epilepsy

Objective: The purpose of this examine was to make use of voxel-based MRI post-processing in detection of delicate FCD in drug-resistant operculoinsular epilepsy sufferers with unfavourable presurgical MRI, and by combining magnetoencephalography (MEG) to enhance the localization of epileptogenic zone. 

Pilot Study of Voxel-Based Morphometric MRI Post-processing in Patients With Non-lesional Operculoinsular Epilepsy
Pilot Study of Voxel-Based Morphometric MRI Post-processing in Patients With Non-lesional Operculoinsular Epilepsy

Methods: Operculoinsular epilepsy sufferers with a unfavourable presurgical MRI had been included in this examine. MRI post-processing was carried out utilizing a Morphometric Analysis Program (MAP) on T1-weighted volumetric MRI.

Clinical data together with semiology, MEG, scalp electroencephalogram (EEG), intracranial EEG and surgical technique was retrospectively reviewed. The pertinence of MAP-positive areas was confirmed by surgical consequence and pathology

Results: A complete of 20 sufferers had been identified with operculoinsular epilepsy had non-lesional MRI throughout 2010-2018, of which 11 sufferers with resective surgical procedures had been included. MEG confirmed clusters of single equal present dipole (SECD) in inferior frontal areas in 5 sufferers and temporal-insular/ frontal-temporal-insular/parietal-insular areas in 5 sufferers.

Four out of 11 sufferers had optimistic MAP outcomes. The MAP optimistic fee was 36.4%.

The optimistic areas had been in insular in one affected person and operculoinsular areas in three sufferers. Three of the 4 sufferers who had been MAP-positive bought seizure-free after efficiently resect the MAP-positive and MEG-positive areas (the pathology outcomes had been FCD IIb in two sufferers and FCD IIa in one affected person). 

Conclusions: MAP is a useful gizmo in detection the epileptogenic lesions in sufferers with MRI-negative operculoinsular epilepsy. Notably, in order to make a proper surgical regime choice, MAP outcomes ought to all the time be interpreted in the context of the affected person’s anatomo-electroclinical presentation.

Surgery of renal artery aneurysms: A monocentric retrospective examine

To report the outcomes of standard surgical procedure for renal artery aneurysms (RAA) in our middle.We retrospectively reviewed the recordsdata of all of the sufferers operated for RAA between 2009 and 2018 in our middle. We collected demographic, organic (renal perform), morphological (CT-scan), and practical (ultrasound examination, resistance index) pre and postoperative knowledge.

Clinical and paraclinical operative knowledge had been examined. Results had been expressed as common ± customary deviation or median and extremes.26 aneurysms had been operated in 20 kidneys (10 proper kidneys) amongst 19 sufferers, together with 13 (68%) ladies with a mean age of 55 (±12) years.

Three (16%) sufferers offered an aneurysm in a single kidney. The discovery of the aneurysm was fortuitous in 14 (74%) sufferers. One Marfan affected person was operated after a postpartum rupture. The median diameter of the operated aneurysms was 22 mm (7-48), and 23 (90%) had been hilar aneurysms.

Arterial restore was carried out in situ in 16 (80%) kidneys. The surgical procedure consisted of a direct arterial restore in 21 circumstances (81%), together with 4 resections and anastomosis, 12 aneurysmorraphies, and 5 complicated reconstructions. Four arterial replacements had been carried out (one prosthetic graft, two femoral grafts, and one inner iliac graft). The common length of renal clamping was 30.5 (±17.3) min.

Postoperative renal perform was unchanged in all of the sufferers besides one (5.2%) who required two days of postoperative dialysis. The resistance index of all of the operated kidneys was regular (0.66±0.08) at discharge. Sixteen (70%) of the 23 aneurysms examined, anatomopathology concluded to a dysplastic origin.

At three months, a scientific CT-scan objectified the patency of 95% of the arterial reconstructions however with three stenoses > 50%. One stenosis > 80% was handled at seven months by balloon angioplasty. Only one operated kidney offered a loss of viability of its higher pole. The imply length of follow-up was 54 ± 35 months.

By the top of the follow-up, major and secondary patency charges evaluated by Doppler ultrasound had been 90 and 95%, respectively.Conventional surgical procedure usually carried out in situ stays a positive and efficient therapy for RAA. This difficult surgical procedure for a uncommon illness ought to be carried out in experimented facilities.

Stress and the autoimmune diseases

What stress could to to our body
Stress

Psychological factors Happen to Be Thought to play a leading role in the disposition, beginning, or class of various physical disorders. Stress is defined as a disorder that occurs when someone perceives the requirements of a scenario that surpasses his tools and can raise the body’s vulnerability to specific ailments, Implementing an immunosuppressive effect. An upgrade consists of the consequences of emotional strain in these diseases which are directly correlated with immunological mechanisms like infections, autoimmune disorders and neoplasms, in addition to its impact on cardiovascular ailments. It’s noted that timely emotional interventions might help regulate the stress response and enhance health behavior, teaching people more adaptive procedures to translate life’s challenges with much more powerful answers.

Stress and autoimmune diseases

The Majority of the Signs that stress Results in The beginning and course of autoimmune disorder are circumstantial as well as also the mechanics by which stressful events influence autoimmunity aren’t entirely understood. But, there are studies which have demonstrated a link between stress and autoimmune disorder.

Many autoimmune disorders share 2 common features: Immune System dysregulation and anxiety pathways. two pathways, the HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulate the immune response through the release of corticosteroids and norepinephrine (NE), respectively. These neuroimmunomediators behave on immune cells like macrophages through the alpha or beta adrenergic receptors on the face, to regulate the creation of significant regulatory cytokines, and normally act to inhibit inflammation. But under certain conditions, NE promotes inflammation during conversation with macrophage alpha-1 adrenergic receptors and the subsequent increase in production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a). Even though macrophages do not ordinarily express the receptors, their saying on the plasma membrane of macrophages and monocytes happens in certain disease conditions. Through these mechanisms, the HPA axis as well as the SNS affect the course and development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which likely play significant roles in its pathogenesis. Thus, therapeutic agents acting on the modulation of neural pathways which normally govern Immune System homeostasis, can be good for the treatment of RA and other autoimmune disorders. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that a disorder of the neuroendocrine system might be among those risk factors associated with the pathogenesis of rheumatic ailments. Persistent inflammatory pressure mediated by neural and humoral signals during the active condition of this disease and autoantibodies from the arrangements of the neuroendocrine system might also take part in neuroendocrine dysfunction.

Effect of stress on autoimmune disease

Stress and it's consequences
Stress and it’s consequences

The best proof of this impact of pressure on autoimmune thyroid disorder is that the association between the onset of Graves’ hyperthyroidism and improved anxiety. But, there aren’t many reports of a potential connection between tension and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, likely because the beginning and development of the disorder are normally insidious and also the consequences of anxiety could go undetected. The pathogenesis of Graves’ ophthalmopathy is unknown, but the presence of an inflammatory response from the orbital tissues, linked to the activity of antithyroid antibodies, was shown. Lately it’s been clarified that ophthalmopathic facets might be determined by environmental variables, one of which pressure stands outside, which supports the hypothesis that the autoimmune procedures within this bronchial inflammation may be associated with environmental aspects. Patients experiencing hypothyroidism can occasionally experience anxiety attack, intense stress, palpitations, and eventually become quite emotionally obese people generating increased anxiety. This disorder, in which the thyroid gland is hypoactive, is often accompanied by exhaustion, fainting, and various levels of melancholy.

In research studies, in which numerous ecological elements such as stressful life events were researched, it was reasoned that emotional strain, measured as psychosocial stress from the household, seems to be involved in the induction or progression of diabetes-related autoimmunity from the youth, because of a union of hormonal levels and neurological signals that affect insulin sensitivity and desire, in addition to Immune system.

Viral Vectors

Types of Viral Vectors
VIRAL VECTORS

Viruses have proven to be one of the most efficient vehicles in transferring genetic information to eukaryotic cells. This is precisely why molecular biologists have put so much effort into modifying their genome to make them more secure (incompetent for replication, attenuation) but maintaining their ability to transfer and express recombinant genetic material. Thus, viral vectors have become a very useful tool in biomedical research both in vitro (cell cultures) and in vivo (animal experiments, gene therapy) but we must be aware that these improvements in intrinsic biosecurity of viral vectors and their commercial availability can facilitate a relaxation in the application of safe practices, circumstance that must be avoided.

Groups of viral vectors

Viruses from which the viral vectors are derived may be assigned to danger group 1 (eg adeno-associated virus, baculovirus), group 2 (eg adenovirus, herpesvirus, poxvirus) but there are also representatives to group 3 (e.g. HIV). Generally, the level of biosecurity required to work with the viral vectors is that of NCB2 but this may vary according to the proposed experimental procedure (e.g. large-scale production, animal inoculation) or the biological activity of the transgene (eg oncogene, biotoxin). ).

To correctly evaluate the risk in working with viral vectors, the following must be considered:

  • the danger group of the unmodified parental virus;
  • the degree of modification made to obtain the defective vector;
  • the function of inactivated viral genes;
  • host range and pseudotyping;
  • its ability and efficiency to integrate into the genome of the host cell
  • the function of the transgene.

The lab offers all research staff working with viral vectors a specific face-to-face course and informative material that can be of great help in conducting a correct risk assessment in each case. Among this material we can highlight the pathogen technical sheets (FTP), available on the intranet, and the following fact sheets:

  •     Viral vectors and biosecurity level
  •     Viral vector biosecurity level and cellular functions
  •     Biosecurity and viral vectors
  •     Biosecurity and lentiviral vectors
  •     Acting in case of accidental exposure to lentiviral vector